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The convergence of security and development is indeed a dedicated and broad academic field. It is back in the 1990s when it became clear that the development discourse had to intersect the security agenda, and vice-versa. However, it is in the 2000s when authors started to address systematically the role played by PMCs/PSCs in areas of development and humanitarian interventions. In this light, the sample of articles provided here should give you a good idea of what is discussed by the experts focusing on the role played by private security at the intersection of security and development studies.
More topics soon!


ABRAHAMSEN, Rita, Paul COLLIER, Michael DILLON, Mark DUFFIELD, Anke HOEFFLER, and Michael C WILLIAMS. The Globalization of Security. Briefing paper, Chatham House, London, October 2005: PDF

CONCLUSION TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF PRIVATE SECURITY THEME: PSCs have become important (global) actors, cooperating and interacting with states, capital and international organizations in the provision and maintenance of security. Increasingly, the distictions between private and public security are becoming blurred and reconfigured, fusing into networks of institutions and practices that are not only local but global.


COCKAYNE, James. Commercial Security in Humanitarian and Post-Conflict Settings: An Exploratory Study. International Peace Academy, Research Reports, New York, March 2006. PDF

ECUTIVE SUMMARY: (...) Donors are uniquely positioned to influence security decisions, monitor performance and discipline providers. Existing mechanisms may already provide the basis for such action by donors, for example through the ECHO Framework Partnership Agreement. Longer-term donor-driven solutions may include: donor- maintained registers of commercial security providers and their performance; baseline security standards; and rewarding socially responsible security providers through preferential treatment.(...)


COCKAYNE, James. After Blackwatergate: how humanitarians can help professionalize the global security industry. The Canadian Consortium on Human Security. Human Security Bulletin, vol. 6, issue 3. March 2008: TEXT | PDF

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS: What can the international humanitarian community learn from the recent scandal surrounding Blackwater? Above all, that while outsourcing security functions may increase staff security in the short term it comes with a range of risks in the long term. Dealing with those risks will require multiple stakeholders in the global security industry to be much more creative in their efforts to professionalize this industry. Humanitarians have an important role to play..


DOKUBO, C Q. Private military corpo rations and the sovereignty of African states. African Journal of International Affairs and Development, vol. 6 no. 2, 2001,pp. 57 - 81. [The article is no longer available as a free download; no abstract provided by the journal; thus only listed for reference purposes]: Journal page

DUFFIELD, Mark. Mark Duffield on Human (In)Security, Liberal Interventionism and Aid Compounds. Theory Talks, no 41, Göteborg, Sweden: PDF

SUMMARY: In this Talk, Duffield, amongst others, discusses how neoliberal thinking has affected how we view human security, sustainable development and the connection between Northern accumulation of wealth and Southern poverty.


GANTZ, Peter H. The Private Sector’s Role in Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement. Refugees International Bulletin. November 18, 2003: TEXT

RECOMMENDATIONS: Refugees International recommends that the UN consider using private contractors for logistical support, given appropriate systems of oversight and accountability. The U.S. military and many other countries already rely on private contractors for support operations. (...)


VAUX, Tony, Chris SEIPLE, Greg NAKANO and Koenraad VAN BRABANT. Humanitarian Action and Private Security Companies: Opening the Debate.International Alert. Research Paper. London, March 2002: PDF

ECUTIVE SUMMARY: (...) Where as there has been considerable debate about the relationship between aid agencies and the military in regard to security management, little attention has been given to the increasing connections with the commercial sector in the form of private security companies. This report argues that it is time to take up this debate. It represents a preliminary attempt to assess the use of private security companies by aid agencies and to raise a number of the key issues.(...)


LAWYER, Jared F . Military Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency in Peacekeeping: Public Versus Private. Oxford Development Studies, vol. 33, no. 1, March 2005, pp. 99-106. [The article is no longer available as a free download; thus only listed for reference purposes]: Journal page

ABSTRACT: The main question addressed by this research is whether or not there is a measurable difference in the use of private or public peacekeepers. The article examines differences in military effectiveness and economic efficiency as evidenced from four major civil wars that occurred in the countries of Somalia, Sierra Leone, Angola and Liberia from 1993 to 2003. Two different methods of conflict cessation are contrasted: Private Military Corporation forces (PMC) and United Nation Peacekeeping forces (UNPK). A further distinction is made between peacekeeping and peace enforcement, arguing that the UN, by using a neutral approach, may be more costly in the long run than a coercive approach that would enforce peace and allow social and economic development to begin. This analysis also shows that policy-makers need to think seriously about the ability of the UN either to enforce peace coercively through military engagement or to move to private enforcers.


LEANDER, Anna and Rens VAN MUNSTER. Private Security Contractors in Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality. Copenhagen Business School. Institute of Intercultural Communication and Management Working Paper no 82, 2006: PDF

ABSTRACT: eThis article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces ne o-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance...The article begins bydrawing on Foucauldian work to clarify the meaning of neo-liberal governmentality in security. It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. ...The managerial and ‘de-politicizing ’ approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only in the Darfuri contex t. It is taken into other contexts where it bolsters neo-liberal governmentality. This spiralling neo-lib eral governmentality rather than diminished state control and authority is, we argue, the most significant consequence of the presence of private security contractors in Darfur .


ORTIZ, Carlos. Private military contracting in weak states: permeation or transgression of the new public management of security? African Security Review, vol. 17, no 2, 2008, 2-14: PDFR | Copy also available at ISN ETH Zurich

CONCLUSIONS: (...) The article has shown both the permutations of some of the market principles underpinning the NPM logic as well as the deviations from the approach by reformers when targeting weak states with their initiatives. Even though the problems associated with this dual dynamic show that the convergence of the paradigm with security provision in weak states remains underdeveloped, it does Features provide opportunities. The privatisation of security in weak states also makes it necessary to investigate further the transnational dimension of contracting out under NPM. This would make it possible to determine the future direction of the NPM of security globally, and clarify the role of PMCs in public sector reform. .


RENOU, Xavier. Private Military Companies Against Development. Oxford Development Studies, vol. 33, no. 1, March 2005, pp. 107-15. [The article is no longer available as a free download; thus only listed for reference purposes]: Journal page

ABSTRACT: The post-cold war emergence of Private Military Companies (PMCs) is part of a larger phenomenon, the privatization of violence in general and warfare in particular. While a minority of scholars argue that once legalized and regulated, PMCs could turn into facilitators of development through the restoration of peace in war-torn countries, this paper argues that such a position misunderstands certain basic aspects of PMCs and highlights the issues of accountability and transparency that prevent corporate mercenaries from being actors for peace and development.


RENOUF, Jean S. L'impact de la privatisation de la sécurité sur l'action humanitaire. La Revue Humanitaire de Medecins du Monde. No. 14: Logique d’urgence et pérennité: PDF (French) | PDF (English)

CONCLUSIONS: (...) So far, no systematic study has established relevant facts, sucesses and failures, and suggested solutions after a throrough analysis of the relationship between private security companies and humanitarian actors. Since the privatization of security has an unquestionable impact on humanitarian action, this research should be conducted without further delay. | Jusquí‡ aujourdíhui, aucune étude établissant un état des lieux, mettant en avant les Èchecs et réussites, et proposant des solutions nía analysé de maniére systématique les relations entre SSP et acteurs humanitaires. Or puis que la privatisation de la sécurité a un impact consÈquent sur líaction humanitaire, cette recherche doit Ítre effectuée sans plus tarder.


SINGER, Peter W. Should humanitarians use private military services? Humanitarian Affairs Review. Summer 2004 PDF (copy at reliefweb)

SUMMARY: In this article, the author warns the humanitarian community to be business-savvy before they decide to use private military services.




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